Our Scientific Methods
Mastery Models are customized descriptions of the developmental progression toward expertise, or mastery, for a particular job in a cognitively complex domain. The Mastery Modeling approach is grounded in the five stages of cognitive skill acquisition first described by Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1986). Through semi-structured interviewing processes, CPG extracts first-hand knowledge of a critical role from individuals who have performed it, and/or mentored the development of others. Taken together, the contents of the Mastery Model comprise a roadmap to achieving mastery in a domain or job position. These models codify the qualities and desired performance that must be considered when developing training interventions, creating assessment tools, or selecting individuals for a role.
Cognitive Task Analysis
Cognitive Task Analysis is a family of techniques with which to capture, delineate, and represent the cognitive demands associated with a task or job. A CTA typically involves a series of semi-structured interviews with domain experts, followed by analysis and representation of findings to answer the research questions, and guide product development. We often apply CTA techniques to elicit and document the decision requirements of a job, as well as the strategies domain experts employ to make decisions fluidly and effectively. We then use that understanding to create training that will accelerate the development of domain expertise in less experienced individuals, or assessment tools that reveal an individual’s level of proficiency at the job. Our team members are well-versed in several CTA techniques, including Task Diagram, Knowledge Audit, Critical Decision Method, and Simulation Interviews.
Cognitive Competency Modeling
Cognitive Competency Modeling is a technique developed by CPG for modeling the nature of expert performance within an organization that focuses on areas of cognitive performance contributing to success. Cognitive Competency Models include an aggregation of knowledge, skill, and cognitive abilities (KSAs), with behaviors used to illustrate the observable actions on the job. We specialize in using a blended modeling approach that focuses on the benefits of different methodologies. Our blended approach combines the strengths of traditional competency modeling and cognitive task analysis to comprehensively characterize the behavioral elements of complex jobs. This technique ensures that we can establish and document the job relevance of interventions in a manner that is both ethically and scientifically sound. We use this approach to create a variety of interventions, such as cognitively-based training scenarios, performance appraisals, position descriptions, and assessment tools.
Concept mapping comprises a knowledge elicitation methodology as well as a technique for organizing and visually representing expert knowledge. Concept maps facilitate the visualization of domain concepts inclusive of the linkages and relationships among them. Concept mapping is often used as a knowledge management tool to capture and record the knowledge of, for example, experts in various fields. At CPG, we employ concept mapping as a technique in our CTA toolkit. It supports collaborative knowledge elicitation with the domain experts we interview and further facilitates assessment efforts by enabling comparisons of domain knowledge across individuals. As a tool for representation, concept maps prove effective in organizing and navigating large, rich data sets for complex, qualitative, and naturalistic investigations.
At times our work demands a more quantitative approach to data collection and analysis. In those instances where our clients require an empirical, data-driven answer to a perplexing problem that lends itself to measurement, we apply standard analytic tools and statistical tests. We are adept at designing experiments, formulating surveys and questionnaires, collecting and analyzing data, and interpreting results. We often employ quantitative techniques in conjunction with qualitative methodologies to assess training effectiveness, assess user reactions to tools or strategies, measure the impact of an intervention, or validate qualitative findings.